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The Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Tactical Proficiency Trainer—a capability that is long overdue

Paul Menoher

The intelligence and Electronic Warfare Tactical Proficiency Trainer (IEWTPT) is absolutely critical to the Army and especially to Army intelligence. It is imperative that Army Intelligence provides operational commanders the best support possible, and attendant to that requirement is the need to provide the best possible training to military intelligence (MI) soldiers. Looking forward to the Army's Future Force--which is underpinned by great situational understanding and precision targeting provided by vastly improved intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR)--the need for intelligence training expands exponentially.

The Problem

A longstanding issue facing the Army is that there is only a limited amount of Army institutional training time available to produce fully trained operators, analysts, and intelligence staff officers. The fact that digital skills are perishable and will atrophy without a high-fidelity, multidiscipline inunit training capability exacerbates this situation. Until now, Army Intelligence has lacked a multidiscipline, inunit training capability to bring our MI soldiers (enlisted, noncommissioned officers [NCOs], and officers) up to, and maintain them at, the high levels of proficiency required to support their commanders. While in the past, talented and dedicated soldiers have done great things through commitment of extraordinary time and effort, it is clear that an effective in-unit training capability allows units to train and maintain their entire intelligence teams at maximum proficiency and thereby improve intelligence and targeting support to commanders. IEWTPT provides this capability.

The need for this type of in-unit training system has existed at least since LTG(R) Menoher commanded the Army's Intelligence Center in the early 1990s and if anything, the need has grown since that time due to reduced budgets for institutional training time. We recognized and articulated the requirement for a viable, multidiscipline, in-unit training capability--which we defined as "IEWTPT"--in the 1990-1991 time frame; however, we could not get the needed funds. We even tried to build a prototype IEWTPT with the help of the U.S. Army Electronic Proving Ground (EPG) at Fort Huachuca, Arizona, in order to show the benefits that would accrue ("build it and they will come"--with funding). The author is happy to report that in December 2000, the Army funded the IEWTPT program and let a contract.

Now, early in 2004, the contract IEWTPT team is fielding the first iteration of the system to Fort Huachuca and has begun the essential testing and evaluation phase of the IEWTPT. We anticipate this will lead to a positive Milestone C decision this year (see Figure 1), resulting in additional fielding to III Corps, XVIII Airborne Corps, V Corps, and the National Training Center for starters.

What Is IEWTPT?

First and foremost, IEWTPT is "MI Gunnery." Just as the Armor Force has its Tank Gunnery Tables to qualify tank crews, IEWTPT will enable us to qualify Army intelligence system operators and analysts fully. However, IEWTPT is much more than just a qualification tool for individuals and teams. Successful intelligence depends on a seamless architecture from "mud-to-space." No echelon, Service, Joint command, or task force has all the intelligence assets it needs to satisfy all of their intelligence and targeting requirements. This dictates that IEWTPT must also be a vehicle through which the Army can accomplish multi-echelon training to train multiple systems' operators, teams of analysts, intelligence and operational staffs, and, very importantly, commanders on how to employ their IEW assets optimally and to understand their roles in doing so (see Figure 2).

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

Army Intelligence doctrine starts with the tenet that "The commander drives intelligence." That is, at each echelon, the operational commander must focus the intelligence effort to provide the intelligence, situational awareness, and targets he or she needs for sucess. To the extent the commander does this, the better focused the intelligence effort will be and the greater the potential for satisfaction of his requirements. The flip side of this equation is that if a commander fails to focus the intelligence effort, there is far less potential that the intelligence system will provide him what he needs, when he needs it.

When one considers the premise behind the Army's Future Force and Future Combat System of trading armor protection for better intelligence, the importance of focusing the intelligence effort becomes clear. As a consequence, IEWTPT provides a multi-echeloned training capability that can include commanders and their staffs.

Acknowledging the "Joint" imperative in how we fight and will fight in the future, IEWTPT must and can expand to the Joint arena as a high-fidelity training vehicle for Joint intelligence and operations staffs and their commanders. The other Services and the new Joint National Training Capability (JNTC) (1) would be well served to embrace IEWTPT as a viable training tool for this purpose.

How Does IEWTPT Work?

IEWTPT consists of a Technical Control Cell (TCC) and multiple target signature arrays (TSAs) interfaced at the front end to constructive simulation and live-instrumented training-range players and at the back end to actual MI systems. The constructive simulation is a computer model that simulates the roles of large numbers of participants on the battlefield. This allows for the creation of complex scenarios involving tens of thousands of soldiers, vehicles, aircraft, etc., and supplements the relatively small number of live participants who are on the training range.

The TCC enhances the constructive and live-data feeds with intelligence data (imagery, communications, electronic, measurement and signatures, and/or human intelligence [IMINT, COMINT, ELINT, MASINT, and/or HUMINT, respectively]) as shown in Figure 3. The TCC then forwards this enhanced data to TSAs that are embedded in or strapped onto the actual collection and processing systems used by the unit(s) involved. TSAs use the enhanced data to simulate the sensor inputs of their respective intelligence systems. Thus, for example, for a system that relies on radar as its data feed, the TCC would take the constructive and live data, enhance it with IMINT or ELINT as required, and forward it to the TSA which would then use this data to simulate a radar data feed into the operational asset. The result is that system operators see "the fight" portrayed on their actual operational systems.

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

The contractor team leader, under contract to the Program Executive Office for Simulation, Training, and Instrumentation (PEO STRI), is building the TCC, and each Program Manager (PM) developing an Army intelligence collection or processing system has the task to develop the TSA for that system. Thus far, eight different Army PMs are developing TSAs, three of which will be part of the IEWTPT initial fielding (Initial Operational Capability [IOC]) to the Intelligence Center at Fort Huachuca this year. These PMs are for the:

[] Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System (Joint STARS) Common Ground Station (CGS).

[] Tactical Exploitation System (TES) and Division Tactical Exploitation System (DTES).

[] Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (TUAV).

The Army will field other TSAs with subsequent versions of IEWTPT, including TSAs for the Distributed

Common Ground System-Army (DCGS-A) and the Aerial Common Sensor (ACS).

Today, constructive simulations like Corps Battle Simulation (CBS), Joint Conflict and Tactical Simulation (JCATS), or Tactical Simulation (TACSIM) drive the TCC, and over time, these will migrate to the objective systems Warfighters' Simulation (WARSIM) 2000 and One Semi-Automated Forces (OneSAF) simulation as part of the Army Constructive Training Federation (ACTF). The TCC can also simultaneously tie to live instrumented training ranges such as in the "maneuver box" at the National Training Center (NTC).

The IEWTPT TCC enhances the live and constructive simulation data with intelligence data to stimulate the TSAs of each of the collection systems, processors, and ground stations used in the training event. System operators are responsible for recognizing information or activity of value as it is appears on their actual systems, and reporting it accurately. They may also cross-cue other resources to assist in data collection, such as the CGS operator requesting imagery from a TUAV operator. Analysts then must use the operators' reports to determine what is occurring and its significance and to present their findings in such a manner that their significance is immediately apparent. Intelligence and/or operational staffs and commanders then must come up with appropriate assessments, directives, and guidance.

One of the most important capabilities of IEWTPT is its ability to assist in the assessment of the users' performance. While the TCC is receiving live and constructive data feeds and enhancing them for use TSAs, it is also capturing this "ground truth" data into record files. As the operators send reports up the chain for analysis, these reports also go from the TSAs back to the TCC where they are parsed and recorded. Additionally, the TSAs send footprint data back to the TCC, which allows for capture of what the operators are looking at versus the data presented to them. This information coupled with automated event detection of activity, such as vehicles entering and leaving areas of interest, allows for the creation of very high-fidelity after-action reviews (AARs) and performance measurement.

Modes of Operation

IEWTPT also has great flexibility to adjust training for a wide variety of audiences, ranging from multiple units and their staffs and commanders to teams or individuals. It uses three modes of operation to accomplish this training:

[] Integrated Mode. Driven by a constructive simulation and/or a live, instrumented fight, it trains operators, analysts, intelligence and operational staffs, and commanders, or any combination thereof, at one or multiple echelons and at one or multiple locations.

[] Playback Mode. Using a recorded segment of a constructive simulation and/or instrumented live fight as ground truth, it stimulates the TSAs to provide focused training for any of the groupings above without the overhead required to run the constructive simulation or to reengage the live players.

[] Stand-alone Mode.Operatorsand/oranalysts work with recorded data from a specific TSA driving their operational system.

When tied to a live event, such as a rotation at the NTC, IEWTPT provides the capability to extend the maneuver box to furnish deep, flank, and rear battles or opposing force (OPFOR) elements operating in the seams between Units of Action (UAs), all tied to the instrumented fight in the maneuver box. One can also add multiple players, including the maneuver brigade's parent division and corps, or additional UAs and/or Units of Employment, as appropriate. This provides the potential for far more realistic and expanded, multi-echelon training opportunities that in turn provide far greater return on the Army's training-dollar investment.

Conclusion

IEWTPT is a capability that is long overdue. Distance learning and embedded training help solve the problem we recognized more than ten years ago, but we will not truly fill the gap until we can field IEWTPT to both Active and Reserve Components of the Army, and provide soldiers with the most realistic training opportunities possible. It is an imperative that the best army in the world provides the most realistic training opportunities for its soldiers. For the Army Intelligence soldier of all grades and ranks, and the staffs and commanders they support, IEWTPT is that vehicle.

Key:

ACS--Aerial Common Sensor

CHATS--CI/HUMINT Automated Tool Set

CI--Counterintelligence

CTC--Combat Training Center

DCGS-A--Distributed Common Ground System-Army

EXCON--Exercise control

GRCS--Guardrail Common Sensor

HUMINT--Human intelligence

JSTARS--Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System (Joint STARS)

LAN--Local-area network

SATCOM--Satellite communications

TCS--Tactical control system (UAV)

TUAV--Tactical unmanned aerial vehicle

WAN--Wide-area network

Endnote

(1.) A key issue at the heart of transforming joint military training, U.S, Joint Forces Command's Joint Warfighting Center continues to develop and implement the Joint National Training Capability (JNTC). As one of three capabilities identified in the Department of Defense (DOD) training transformation plan, this effort broadens and deeps the reach of joint force training, The other DOD initiatives to transform joint training are the Joint Knowledge Development and Distribution Capability (JKDDC) and the Joint Assessment and Enabling Capability (JAEC). [From http://www.jwfc.jfcom.mil/about/factjntc.htm]

Paul Menoher (Lieutenant General, U.S. Army, Retired) founded his own firm in Fall of 2001 after working more than four years with industry. Before joining industry, he served more than 35 years on active duty. His final position from 1995-1997 was as the Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence (DCSINT), DA. Prior to that he commanded the U.S. Army Intelligence and Security Command, USAIC&FH, the U.S. Army Intelligence Agency, and the 501st MI Brigade Korea.He also commanded two battalions and served in Vietnam and Cambodia. He holds a Bachelor of Arts and Science degree in International Relations. The Director of Central Intelligence presented him the National Intelligence Distinguished Service Medal. In addition, he was a 1998 inductee into the Military Intelligence Hall of Fame. Readers may contact LTG(R) Menoher via E-mail at PMenoherAssoc@aol.com.

Roger McNicholas is a Business Area Manager and Program Manager (contractor), supervising all programs and products of a simulation systems facility in Florida. This includes development of the IEWTPT, development of training for several packages on the U.S. Army's Future Combat System (FCS), as well as the Simulation Tool Suites ModlOS[R] and S2Focus[TM] and the Dismounted Soldier Simulator Virtual Reality product. Before joining his current firm two years age, he worked 15 years in business development and management positions. He has a Bachelor of Science degree in Computer Engineering. Interested readers may contact Mr. McNichelas via E-mail at Roger.McNicholas@gdds.com and telephonically at (407) 823-7011.

COPYRIGHT 2004 U.S. Army Intelligence Center and School
COPYRIGHT 2004 Gale Group





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